TUTTO QUELLO CHE DEVI SAPERE SULL'ALCOL: #TELOSPIEGO!
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Arezou Azad. Place tickles our imagination and curiosity—we want to know where people were born, to visit codings da alcolismo in Barnaul places, to find out how places were in the past. The ways in which places are conceptualized depend on the persons imagining or constructing them. To the visitor, the lure of a place may be its epic past, natural landscape, or monumental attractions.
To the resident, place is where rationality rules. The eyes of the visitor are untrained and uninitiated, scanning a new landscape, eagerly searching for familiar markers, while using the known landscape from home as a reference point. To put it differently, place might be conceptualized in one of two ways. These imaginations of the past may take physical form in shrines or public monuments, or they may encapsulate wider tracts of land, such as an entire city.
The Implications codings da alcolismo in Barnaul a History of Afghanistan Considering place in this way produces a different kind of history for Afghanistan from what we can usually read codings da alcolismo in Barnaul, a political history of major events and people. Moreover, they are often heavily focused on codings da alcolismo in Barnaul Afghan capital of Kabul.
Important as Kabul may be to Afghan history it often bears limited, if any, codings da alcolismo in Barnaul to what happens in the rest of Afghanistan or lands that are now part of Afghanistan. It should be added that I realize that I am part of a new trend in the history-writing of the Near and Middle East if we can provisionally include Afghanistan in this regional category.
Such data would certainly provide complementary and crucial evidence for understanding how Balkh was affected by major socio-cultural and political developments following the Islamic conquests and throughout the medieval period. Alfred Foucher was the first foreign Orientalist to start digging up the ancient site of Balkh in the s. Excavation works have continued until this day, albeit with lengthy intermissions, sometimes lasting years, due to the massive upheavals that have befallen the country, such as the Soviet intervention —88two civil wars —96and Taliban rule — Apart from its great walls, and some scattered remnants p.
And yet the many written accounts tell codings da alcolismo in Barnaul much about the grand, ancient, powerful and beautiful city of Balkh. The codings da alcolismo in Barnaul of reconstructing this medieval city is compelling to any historian of the region. This is an impressive legacy for one place, and yet how it all happened remains a mystery.
For example, the project plans to produce detailed historical maps of Balkh and its surroundings, something that has not been attempted so far. Does that not mean something in itself? Perhaps it did not matter to them where the congregational mosque or a particular shrine was physically located.
Or perhaps codings da alcolismo in Barnaul knew, so why mention it? And so we get to the crux of this book. What is it that the local contemporaries tell us about their city, in how much detail, and to what purpose?
Period, Location, and Connotation Historical Balkh is an important place to study for three main reasons. First, it has survived over more than four millennia; secondly, it has an untarnished reputation as a city of great scholarship and mysticism; and thirdly, it is noted for an exceptional level of mercantile achievement. Bactra—the Greek name under which pre-Islamic p. The Iranian dynasty ruled over Bactria until the Muslim conquests in the early eighth century, usually indirectly through resident élites.
The main period of focus in this book concerns the eighth to the twelfth centuries. This codings da alcolismo in Barnaul uses both terms, simply because they are well established in the scholarly literature and are conveniently short. Frankly, no better terms exist. If we situate ourselves on a modern-day map for a moment, we can find Balkh in the north-western part of Afghanistan see Map 2. The region is at the fringe of Afghanistan, and, as fringes go, it is not easily accommodated in one or another of the major areas of the present or the past.
One scholar, Richard Foltz, clearly situates Balkh together p. We need to bear this regional context in mind when considering the influence of Islam and other religions on Balkh. For three centuries it was codings da alcolismo in Barnaul Uzbek rule, becoming the second most important city of the Bukhara Emirate after Bukhara. The Soviets had a major presence there when they intervened in Afghanistan in — The point is that Balkh is a major historical site, but about the place itself we know very little.
The name of Balkh may not conjure up a clear image to many Westerners. Everyone claims Balkh as theirs—not in geostrategic, pragmatic or economic terms, but on a wider, cultural and, yes, metaphysical scale.
It is not just the people of the region who love Balkh. Days would be spent sipping tea with the wise mystic, usually with a view over and around the imposing ancient walls of Balkh that provide testament to an impressive, built-up landscape that existed once here. The ancient site of Balkh is p. When standing in the old site of Balkh and its surroundings today it is appealing to believe that the landscape shapes imaginings of specialness and holiness.
The Source and Its Context The question is, then, how and when was this historical memory formed? Who developed it, and why? Rest assured that this quest has nothing to do with such a reassessment. This is rather a search for the source of a narrative that has become a part of the history codings da alcolismo in Barnaul Afghanistan. This narrative considers Balkh to have a special spiritual quality.
Did it arise out of the mainstream ideas of the day? Or did the notion merely live on by happenstance—say, because the narrative was enshrined in codings da alcolismo in Barnaul particular document or text that survived. Why would such a particular text persist, and not others? It is just now being translated into English, and only parts have been adapted into Codings da alcolismo in Barnaul in an unpublished doctoral thesis by the influential Iranian activist of the s and s Ali Shariati at the Sorbonne.
Or perhaps it was the place that imbued these men with their special qualities? Who patronized them? Who wrote them? What do they say that we do not find in the general histories of the time? These are all important questions and comparanda for our study. At first glance, these little snippets of information may seem random and insignificant, but, in fact, they provide us with a rare insight and contemporary perspective on place.
Therein lies a codings da alcolismo in Barnaul untold: the history of a legend that is a city, a city that is holy more than anything else. What exactly makes this place holy, and how its sacredness is retained and respected will form the central theme of this book. Sacred Space The notion of sacred codings da alcolismo in Barnaul is not new, and has been outlined and explained by scholars from various fields.
He suggested that sacred places had a mystical quality called numen, or divine power. Narratives perpetuate the idea that particular places—natural and man-made—have a sacral quality. Often such places already have a historical significance.
The narratives on sacred landscape around the world are found in written and oral historical accounts, as well as legal documents and letters, and they find their confirmation or not in the archaeological evidence. On the basis of these studies we can categorize sacred sites as either natural landscape features that are identified as holy such as mountains, trees, caves and watersor where sensory and mythic relationships with the environment are established.
The former have existed since the earliest days of human interaction with place. In this category, places also became holy as a result of a particular scent or sound that existed there others might argue that the causality is reversed, i. Within this second category we can include places like Jerusalem which are theorized as conceptual centres, or Mount Kailash in Tibet which is understood as a symbolic centre for Codings da alcolismo in Barnaul and South Asian communities.
Human interaction with sacred spaces reaches its height during pilgrimage. Visits to shrines and similar interactions with sacred spaces are accompanied by a set of standard rituals, such as circumambulating a space a designated number of times and in a particular direction, and at a specific, auspicious point in time.
Pilgrims pay their respects to the site, and ask its spirit for intervention when faced with a particular problem in life. The Greeks spoke of a chora, which denoted place as something expressive, as a repository of memory and of mythic presence. Then there was topos, which signified place as we understand it today: a simple location—the objective, physical features of a locale. Modern Western historians started to be interested in the chora in so far as the conversion of sites to Islam told us about the impact of Islam on the West.
The fundamental question here is why were sites that were considered sacred to one religion not destroyed by the conquerors who brought with them a new religion. Was it retained, or did the new powers that be reconfigure it so that it bore attributes that emanated from the new religion?
Such questions interested scholars such as F. Hasluck who identified Christian and Islamic religious sites in Turkey that displayed the remnants of previous religions and spirituality. These were sites that had changed hands multiple times during their history. Without dwelling on the criticisms of this concept, it is worth recalling that modern scholars tend to avoid this term due to its abuse by previous Western historians and anthropologists.
Today, these newer faiths are understood as religions in their own right with a foundation in local belief systems. Moreover, we are aware that Christianity is not a monolith but is itself a result of a blending pro-cess, and that it codings da alcolismo in Barnaul in many forms and still does. Thus, in this book we will treat syncretism as a process of fusion without any of the hierarchical connotations that used to mark this term.
Islamization and Codings da alcolismo in Barnaul Landscape In the Balkh area, religiosity up to the codings da alcolismo in Barnaul of the Islamic conquests and for at least two centuries thereafter seems to have been centred on the worship of a set of local deities,33 together with Buddhism34 p. The question is how did the Islamization process happen in Balkh, i. How was the Buddhist-dominated city of Balkh transformed into a centre for Islamic scholarship within just a few centuries after the advent of Islam?
Until recently, much scholarship has tended to focus on the caliphal centres further west Syria, Iraq, and Egypt when considering questions on early conversions to Islam. Iranian and Central Asian centres and cities did not adopt Codings da alcolismo in Barnaul but Persian, and large-scale conversions to Islam occurred much later in the east than in the west.
The reasons for this difference are still not fully understood. Balkh was the easternmost province of the Central Asian lands of the caliphate, which makes it a particularly interesting test case for such an investigation. By the same token, it is worth exploring the extent to which life after Islam in Balkh may have stayed the same, or was perhaps only made to look different.
These questions are difficult to answer, and we may not always find the evidence for them, but this codings da alcolismo in Barnaul provides at least a starting point for looking at the question of Islamization in Balkh.