Alcolista - Scena del film "Astinenza"
Historically, alpha-blockers were used as a tool for pharmacologic research to develop a greater understanding of the autonomic nervous system. Using alpha blockers, scientists began characterizing arterial blood pressure and central vasomotor control in the autonomic nervous system. Although alpha blockers can only treat a small range of diseases, blockers da alcolismo of them have clinical uses, such as having the ability to treat hypertensionRaynaud's diseaseand erectile dysfunction.
Ultimately, depending on the type of blockers da alcolismo receptor, this relaxes the smooth muscle or blood vessels, which increases fluid flow in these entities. Irreversibly binds. Blocks alpha induced vasconstriction. Lowers blood pressure by decreasing peripheral resistance. Hypertension is due to an increase in vascular resistance and vasoconstriction. This is because they can decrease vascular resistance and decrease pressure. Pheochromocytoma is a disease in which a catecholamine secreting tumor develops.
The proposed mechanism for yohimbine is blockade of the adrenergic receptors that are associated with neurotransmitters inhibition, including dopamine and nitric oxideand thus aiding with penile erection and libido. However, some side effects can occur, such as palpitationtremorelevated blood pressureand anxiety. Phentolaminea non-selective alpha blocker, has also been tested to treat erectile dysfunction. By reducing vasoconstriction in the blockers da alcolismo, there appears to be increased blood flow that aids in penile erection.
Side effects associated with phentolamine include headache, flushing, and nasal congestion. In benign prostatic hyperplasia BPHmen experience urinary obstruction and are unable to urinate, thus leading to urinary retention.
Adverse effects of prazosin to treat PTSD nightmares include blockers da alcolismoFirst Dose Effect a sudden loss of consciousnessweaknessnauseaand fatigue. Although alpha blockers have the ability to reduce some disease pathology, there are some side effects that come with these alpha blockers. Side effects that arise when taking alpha blockers can include the first dose effectcardiovascular side effects, genitourinary side effects, as well as other side effects. One of the most common side effects with alpha blockers is the first dose effect.
Ultimately, this gives rise to orthostatic hypotensiondizzinessand a sudden loss of consciousness due to the drastic drop in blood pressure. Alpha blockers that possess these side effects include prazosindoxazosinand terazosin.
There are some alpha blockers that can give rise to changes in the cardiovascular system, such as the induction of reflex tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, or heart palpitations via alterations of the QT interval.
Alpha blockers that may have these side effects include yohimbinephenoxybenzamineand phentolamine. When alpha blockers are used to treat BPH, it causes vasodilation of blood vessels on the bladder and the prostate, thus increasing urination in general. In addition, due to the relaxation of the prostate smooth muscle, another side effect that arises in men being treated for BPH is impotence, as well as the inability to ejaculate.
Drugs that may produce such side effects include prazosinterazosintamsulosinand doxazosin. Finally, there are other general side effects that can be caused by most alpha blockers however, more frequently in alpha-1 blockers. Such side effects include blockers da alcolismodrowsinessweaknessfatiguepsychiatric depressionand dry blockers da alcolismo.
There is only one compelling indication for alpha blockers, which is for benign prostatic hyperplasia. In the absence of compelling indications or contraindications, patients should take alpha blockers as a step 4 therapy to reduce blood pressure, but only if the use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thazide diuretics in full dose or in combinations have not been efficacious.
As with any drug, there are drug interactions that can occur with alpha blockers. For instance, alpha blockers that are used for the reduction of blood pressure, such as phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine can have synergy with other drugs that affect smooth muscle, blood vessels, or drugs used for erectile dysfunction i. This stimulates exaggerated hypotension.
Alternative alpha blockers, such as prazosintamsulosindoxazosinor terazosin can have adverse interactions with beta blockerserectile dysfunction drugs, anxiolyticsand antihistamines. Furthermore, in rare cases, drug interactions can cause irregular, rapid heartbeats or an increase blood pressure.
Yohimbine can interact with stimulantshypertension drugs, naloxoneand clonidine. Interactions with such drugs can cause either an unintended increase in blood pressure or potentiate blockers da alcolismo increase in blood pressure. Finally, in drugs with both alpha and beta blocking properties, such as carvedilol and labetalolinteractions with other alpha or beta blockers can exaggerate a decrease in blood pressure. Alpha blockers blockers da alcolismo by blocking the effect of nerves in the sympathetic nervous system.
This is done by blockers da alcolismo to the alpha receptors in smooth muscle or blood vessels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Biochemical Pharmacology. Clinical Cardiology. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. The Prostate. European Urology Supplements. Mary Julia Harvey, Richard A. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven. Blockers da alcolismo Journal of Psychiatry. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Journal of Cardiac Failure. The Journal of Urology. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Pharmacological Research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences. New England Journal of Medicine. European Urology. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.
Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology. Pharmacology Made Easy. P 12 March British Medical Journal. Comprehensive Hypertension. Reviews in Urology. July J British Hypertension Society. Archived blockers da alcolismo the original PDF on Retrieved Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. February 1, blockers da alcolismo See Ion channel modulators. Histamine receptor agonist Histamine receptor antagonist H 1 H 2 H blockers da alcolismo.
Opioid modulator Opioid receptor blockers da alcolismo Opioid receptor antagonist Enkephalinase inhibitor. Cofactor see Enzyme cofactors Precursor see Amino acids.
Adrenergic receptor modulators. Drugs used in benign prostatic hyperplasia G04C. Dutasteride Epristeride Finasteride. Alfuzosin Doxazosin Silodosin Tamsulosin Terazosin.
Allylestrenol Delmadinone acetate Gestonorone caproate Osaterone acetate Oxendolone. Pygeum africanum Saw palmetto extract.
Reversal of epinephrine induced effects. Pheochromocytoma . Reflex cardiac stimulation Tachycardia Arrythmia Anginal pain . Lowers blood pressure.